Freshwater Training – Its Availability, Treatment & Use

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Freshwater Training: Its Availability, Treatment & Use

Course Outline & Aims:

A mere 2.78% of the world’s water exists as freshwater. World-wide, nearly three-quarters of freshwater consumed in a single given year is used for agriculture, and industry relies much upon its supply for use in everything from wood harvesting for making paper to processing petroleum into gasoline for cars. Remarkably however, domestic consumption makes up the smallest portion of freshwater use, but natural disasters and climate change can cause drought, whilst overconsumption can lead to problems that affect entire regions both environmentally and economically.

Hence, the Middle East’s over-reliance on desalination is all too plain to see. There are over 13,000 desalination plants around the world in 120 countries producing in excess of 15 million m3 of freshwater per day, which equates to less than 1% of total world consumption. However, the world’s most important users of desalinated water are Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Bahrain, which collectively use approximately 70% of worldwide capacity and, as the desalination process is expensive and requires a great deal of energy, it is imperative that consumers are educated to the merits of water conservation and wise consumption in order to promote a sustainable future.

Course Objectives:

The scarcity of fresh water resources and the need for additional water supplies is already critical in many regions of the world and will become increasingly important in the future due to the increasing competition for water and overpopulation. Indeed, it is highly likely that water, like fossil energy resources, will become one of the determining factors of world stability. However, the world-wide availability of renewable energies makes it possible to consider the coupling of desalination plants with renewable energy production processes in order to ensure sustainable and environmentally friendly water production.  

The objectives of the course are to provide delegates with the appropriate knowledge, skills and competencies in order   

  • To educate water consumers;
  • To promote wise water consumption; and
  • To reflect upon the merits of existing and future freshwater production techniques.

Intended for:

The nature of the course is such that professionals from a wide range of backgrounds can be accommodated.

Methods of Instruction:

Course participants will be required to apply knowledge gained during tutored sessions into group discussions and syndicate sessions.


Delivery Methods:

Course delivery will comprise a combination of short power point presentations with flip chart calculations and demonstrations. Delegate handouts will include notes on technical theory and application, together with photographs and diagrams of specific treatment plants and processes.

Programme Schedule:

Global Water Resources

Session 1 – Saline Water

Session 2 – Freshwater

Session 3 – Ancient Hydraulic Economies

Session 4 – Consumption, Access, Water Lending and Drought Bank

Session 5 – Water Management & Conservation

Session 6 – The Geography of Desalination

Drinking Water Quality

Session 7 – pH

Session 8 – Hardness

Session 9 – Colour

Session 10 – Turbidity

Session 11 – Taste & Odour

Session 12 – Contamination

Treatment Processes 1

Session 13 – Desalination & Environmental Damage (salt dumping plus carbon footprint)

Session 14 – Reverse Osmosis

Session 15 – Forward Osmosis

Session 16 – Electro-dialysis

Treatment Processes 2

Session 17 – Thermal Desalination

Session 18 – Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (e.g. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

Session 19 – Multiple-Effect Distillation

Session 20 – Future Options

 Course Tutor: Professor Robert Jackson

Freshwater Training Inverness, Aberdeen, Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dunfermline and other sites throughout the UK including onsite closed company courses are available.

Freshwater Training Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, India, Ghana and Nigeria is also available.

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