Water & Wastewater Management in Nigeria

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Water & Wastewater Management Training Nigeria

A Bespoke Four Day Course – The International Dispute Resolution Centre, London

Introduction

In 2001 the economist Jim O’Neill identified the ‘Bric’ countries (Brazil Russia, India & China) as potential powerhouses of the world economy. Today he has described the ‘Mint’ countries (Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria & Turkey) as emerging economic giants. Consequently, access to clean water, sanitation services and water management is needed to create a progressive strategy for Nigeria’s economy, and investing in water management is an essential condition for enabling sustained economic growth. Improved water resource management coupled with improved access to water and sanitation services fosters improved health, averts health care costs and increases certainty, efficiency and productivity across economic sectors. Such interventions also contribute to the health of the ecosystem and lead to immediate and long-term economic, social and environmental benefits.

Hence, there is a need to provide sustainable access to safe and adequate water supplies to meet the cultural and socio-economic needs of all Nigerians in a way that will enhance public health, food security and poverty reduction, whilst maintaining the integrity of the nation’s freshwater ecosystem. The 2006 census confirmed that 37.2 million people, representing 26.6% of the total population, live in the coastal zones of Nigeria which have been affected by heavy environmental pollution from oil prospecting activities, petrochemical and other forms of solid and liquid wastes emanating from textile, food processing, metallurgy, rubber/plastic, pharmaceutical, paint and chemical industries and which threaten the livelihood of residents of these areas. Moreover, 80% of all wastewater coming from these industrial facilities receives no form of treatment.

It is estimated that over 40% of Nigerians derive their sources of drinking water from ground-water sources with approximately 30% from hand-dug wells and 10% from boreholes. A further 35% of Nigerians resort to surface water sources to meet their domestic water supply needs and are thus exposed to risks from the effects of flooding and solid waste disposal. Indeed, transported sediments and leachates from wastes, and especially biological wastes, can easily contaminate both surface water and groundwater thus compromising the people’s health which is often compounded by a complacent attitude of environmental regulation.

The four day programme, outlined below, examines the specific water and wastewater challenges facing Nigeria and offers a detailed insight into appropriate technological solutions.


Days 1 & 2: Water Pollution & Control – Wastewater Treatment Technologies

Course Outline & Aims:

Water Pollution & Control principally comprises the treatment of polluting wastewaters and their safe disposal. Wastewater is a complex mixture of natural inorganic and organic material mixed with man-made substances that is discharged to sewer and ends up at a treatment plant for purification. The aim of this course is to provide an introduction to, and basic understanding of, treatment technologies which bring about the removal of pathogenic micro-organisms through a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes.

The aims of the course are to provide delegates with the appropriate knowledge, skills and competencies to apply wastewater treatment technologies to convert the waste materials present in waste waters into stable oxidised end products that can be safely disposed of to watercourses without any adverse ecological effects; to protect public health; to ensure that waste water is disposed of on a regular and reliable basis without nuisance or offence; to recycle and recover the valuable components of waste water; provide an economic method of disposal; and to comply with legal standards and consent conditions placed on dischargers. Topics include: Composition of Wastewaters; Aims of Wastewater Treatment; Design Flows and Sewage Strengths; Formula A; BOD; SS; Unit Processes; Aerobic; Anaerobic; Preliminary Treatment; Storm Water Flow Management; Primary Sedimentation; Secondary Biological Treatment; Fixed Film Bioreactors; Activated Sludge; Tertiary Treatment; Reed Bed Technology; Sludge Treatment; Thickening; Digestion; Dewatering; Drying; Incineration.

Course Objectives:

The objectives of the course are to provide delegates with the appropriate knowledge, skills and competencies to apply appropriate treatment technologies

  • To convert, using a range of processes and plant, the waste materials present in wastewaters into stable oxidised end products that can be safely disposed of to watercourses without any adverse ecological effects;
  • To protect public health;
  • To ensure that waste water is disposed of on a regular and reliable basis without nuisance or offence;
  • To recycle and recover the valuable components of wastewater; and
  • To provide an economic  method of disposal.

Programme Schedule:

Day 1: Wastewater Treatment, Pollution Control, Plant & Process Selection 1

Session 1 – Composition of Wastewaters

Session 2 – Principles & Aims of Wastewater Treatment

Session 3 – Design Flows and Sewage Strengths – BOD; SS

Session 4 – Basic Unit Processes; Aerobic; Anaerobic

Session 5 – Preliminary Treatment

Session 6 – Physical Processes – Primary Sedimentation (Rectangular; Radial Flow)

Session 7 – Biological Processes – Secondary Treatment (Fixed Film Bioreactors; Activated Sludge)

Day 2: Plant & Process Selection 2, Solid Waste Handling & Odours

Session 8 – Advanced Processes (Deep Shaft)

Session 9 – Tertiary Treatment (Reed Bed Technology)

Session 10 – Disinfection & Ultra Violet Irradiation

Session 11 – Sludge Treatment (Thickening & Digestion)

Session 12 – Sludge Treatment (De-Watering, Disposal & Incineration)

Session 13 – Odour Management & Control

Days 3 & 4: Freshwater – Its Availability, Treatment & Use

Course Outline & Aims:

A mere 2.78% of the world’s water exists as freshwater. World-wide, nearly three-quarters of freshwater consumed in a single given year is used for agriculture, and industry relies much upon its supply for use in everything from wood harvesting for making paper to processing petroleum into gasoline for cars. Remarkably however, domestic consumption makes up the smallest portion of freshwater use, but natural disasters and climate change can cause drought, whilst overconsumption can lead to problems that affect entire regions both environmentally and economically.

Drinking water originates from precipitation and rapidly absorbs both natural and man-made substances which generally render it undrinkable without treatment. The aim of this course is to provide an introduction to, and basic understanding of, water treatment which will produce an adequate and continuous supply of water that is chemically, bacteriologically and aesthetically pleasing. Water treatment must produce water that is palatable; safe; clear; colourless and odourless; reasonably soft; non-corrosive; and with a low organic content. Water treatment consists of a range of treatment processes usually used in series with the selection of unit processes usually dependent on the raw water quality and its seasonal variability. The course provides delegates with an overview and detailed insight into the principles and techniques of drinking water treatment and the implications of contamination.  Topics include: Water Sources; Raw Water Characteristics; Potable Water Parameters; Pre-Treatment; Screening; Storage; Aeration; Primary Treatment; Coagulation; Flocculation; Sedimentation; Secondary Treatment; Filtration; Ultraviolet Irradiation; Disinfection.

Course Objectives:

The scarcity of fresh water resources and the need for additional water supplies is already critical in many regions of the world and will become increasingly important in the future due to the increasing competition for water and overpopulation. Indeed, it is highly likely that water, like fossil energy resources, will become one of the determining factors of world stability. However, the world-wide availability of renewable energies makes it possible to consider the coupling of desalination plants with renewable energy production processes in order to ensure sustainable and environmentally friendly water production.

The objectives of the course are to provide delegates with the appropriate knowledge, skills and competencies in order

  • To educate water consumers;
  • To promote wise water  consumption; and
  • To reflect upon the merits of existing and future freshwater production techniques.

Programme Schedule:

Day 3: Global Water Resources & Drinking Water Quality

Session 1 – Saline Water

Session 2 – Freshwater

Session 3 – Ancient Hydraulic Economies

Session 4 – Consumption, Access, Water Lending and Drought Bank

Session 5 – Water Management & Conservation

Session 6 – The Geography of Desalination

Session 7 – pH

Session 8 – Hardness

Session 9 – Colour

Session 10 – Turbidity

Session 11 – Taste & Odour

Session 12 – Contamination

Day 4: Treatment Processes

Session 13 – Desalination & Environmental Damage (salt dumping plus carbon footprint)

Session 14 – Reverse Osmosis

Session 15 – Forward Osmosis

Session 16 – Electro-dialysis

Session 17 – Thermal Desalination

Session 18 – Multi-Stage Flash Distillation

Session 19 – Multiple-Effect Distillation

Session 20 – Future Options

Methods of Instruction:

Course participants will be required to apply knowledge gained during tutored sessions into group discussions and syndicate design sessions, and will identify and define appropriate technologies and their application to industrial case studies. In total there are 22 numerical group exercises to be completed.

Delivery Methods:

Course delivery will comprise a combination of short power point presentations with flip chart calculations and demonstrations. Delegate hand-outs will include notes on technical theory and design charts, together with photographs and diagrams of specific treatment plants and processes.

Course Intended for:

The nature of the course is such that professionals from a wide range of backgrounds can be accommodated including, for example, government ministry staff, engineers, scientists, public and environmental health specialists, and consulting engineers and contractors engaged in the design and construction of water industry infrastructure. The course is eligible for 30 hours of continuing professional development.

Cost:

The delegate rate is £1200 + VAT per day which includes a comprehensive set of coursenotes, refreshments throughout the day and a gourmet lunch within the prestigious venue of the International Dispute Resolution Centre near St Paul’s Cathedral in the heart of legal London. The last day of the course culminates in a wine reception hosted by renowned artist and sculptor Stephen Charlton who is the artist in residence and whose original art adorns the walls of the venue.

The Tutor

Professor Robert Jackson

  • In an October 2010  press release, Scottish Water described Professor Jackson as one of the      UK’s leading independent experts in waste water management.
  • He was formerly Professor in the Department of  Civil Engineering at the University of Salford, Greater Manchester, where  he was Head of the Centre for Sustainable Technologies & Regeneration in the School of Computing, Science & Engineering. He now chairs the Environment & Sustainable Development SIG Committee of the Institution of Civil Engineers.
  • As a Chartered Civil Engineer his professional career has spanned a period of 35 years during which he has worked throughout the UK and in the Middle East, Far East and South East Asia. Previous employers include international consultants, a contractor, local government, and a water utility company.
  • Professor Jackson is a Fellow of the Institution of Civil Engineers and a Fellow and former Elected Member of  Council of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management and provides bespoke training to consultancy practices and clients throughout the UK and overseas in the areas of Potable Water and  Wastewater Treatment Technologies.
  • As a former Elected Member of Council of The Academy of Experts, a Law Society Checked Expert, an Approved Expert of  the UK Register of Expert Witnesses, and an Approved Expert of the  Association of Personal Injury Lawyers, he regularly provides independent expert opinion to a wide range of clients in the public and private sectors. In December 2011 Professor Jackson was  appointed to the Advisory Board of the Standing Conference of Mediation Advocates.
  • He appears on radio, publishes in the technical and legal press, and has appeared on BBC TV  Newsnight. He appeared live on BBC Radio 4’s ‘You & Yours’ on 15th April 2007 in the aftermath of the Firth of Forth pollution incident and  was interviewed for a BBC Panorama programme broadcast on 6th August 2007 relating to flooding in the Severn Valley. He was also interviewed live on BBC Radio Scotland’s ‘Good Morning Scotland’ on 21st February 2012 about the risks of on-going drought and the need for a UK-wide water distribution network.

 Relevant Publications

  • Risk engineering – an approach to the limitation of hazards in design and construction of sub-surface works Jackson R.P., Eaton G., Farley H.H., Risk and Reliability in Ground Engineering, Institution of Civil Engineers (1993).
  • From the Unthinkable to the Drinkable – Wastewater to Potable Water: the Case for Increased Environmental Awareness and Social AcceptanceJackson R.P International Conference on Water Re-use in the Arab World – Applications and Economic Advantages, Arab-British Chamber of Commerce, London (1996).
  • Simplifying the Complex – Objective, reliable and credible expert evidence Jackson R.P., Solicitors Journal (1997).
  • Water privatisation: ownership disputes and liability Jackson R.P; Legge D, Solicitors Journal (1998).
  • Drought – the implications for water metering Jackson R.P., Legge D., Solicitors Journal (1998).
  • Lead contamination – the implications for drinking water quality Jackson R.P., Legge D., Solicitors Journal (1998).
  • Unravelling the Dispute – clarity in the technical aspects of dispute resolution Jackson R.P., Solicitors Journal (1998).
  • Pollution Alleviation – improving river and marine quality to protect the environment Jackson R.P., Legge D., Solicitors Journal (1998).
  • Contaminated Land and the Risks to Groundwater Quality Jackson R.P., Crowther J., Anthony R., United Kingdom Environmental Law Association Annual Conference, Belfast (1999).
  • Grey-water – Its Social Acceptance Chartered Institution of Water & Environmental Management National Conference, Making Better Use of Water Resources, London (1999).
  • Polluted Groundwater – Protecting Potable Water Supplies Jackson R.P., Ord E.C, Solicitors Journal (1999)
  • Groundwater Pollution – Engineering Risks and Legal Threats Jackson R.P., Ord E.C, Legal Week (1999).
  • Liquid Liabilities – The Legal Implications of Groundwater Pollution Jackson R.P., Ord E.C, Ground Engineering (1999).
  • Environmental Impairment – Legal Remediation Jackson R.P., Ord E.C, Water & Environment Manager (1999).
  • Making the Polluter Pay Jackson R.P., Ord E.C, Legal Week (1999).
  • Land Contamination, Water Pollution and Groundwater Risk – Legal Compliance and Professional Liabilities Jackson R.P & Ord E.C., Geoscientist, British Geological Society (2000)
  • Land Regeneration & Remediation UK Environmental Industry Guide 2000 Jackson R.P (2000).
  • Foreseeable Risks – Legal Redress (Ground Contamination) Jackson R.P., Ord E C, Water & Environment Manager (2000).
  • A Flood of Disputes Jackson R.P., John A, New Law Journal (2000).
  • Grey-water Re-Use – Benefit or Liability? The UK Perspective Jackson R.P., Ord E.C., Water 21, Journal of the International Water Association (2000).
  • Water & the Human Rights Act Jackson R.P. & Ord E.C., Water & Waste Treatment (2000).
  • Lead Contamination of Water – The Hidden Threat Jackson R.P., P I Focus, Journal of the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers (2000).
  • Cryptosporidium – Drinking Water Contamination Jackson R.P., P I Focus, Journal of the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers (2000).
  • Green Sustainable Businesses – The Burden of the Climate Change Levy Jackson R.P., Ord E.C, Water & Environment Manager (2001).
  • Watering Down the Impact – Urban Flooding Jackson R.P., Insurance Day (2001).
  • Underground Disputes & the Single Joint Expert Jackson R.P., McHugh P, World Tunnelling (2002). 
  • Fertile Ground for Disputes (Tunnelling & Directional Drilling) Jackson R.P., McHugh P, Ground Engineering (2002).
  • Health Care or Mass Medication (Fluoridation) Jackson R.P., Ord E.C, Water & Environment Manager (2004)
  • The Benefits of Mediation Jackson R.P., Lind M, Tunnelling & Trenchless Construction (2004)
  • Horizontal Directional Drilling Dispute Resolution Jackson R.P., paper presented to the European Directional Drilling Contractors Association 9th Congress Antwerp 4-6 October 2004
  • Drilling Dispute? Why not Mediate? Jackson R.P., Talbot M, Geo-drilling International April 2005
  • Storm-water Management – Threats & Solutions Jackson R.P., Water Journal June 2006
  • Storm-water Management – Liability or Asset Jackson R.P., Water Journal May 2007
  • Weil’s Disease – Occupational Risks from Contaminated Soil & Water Jackson R.P., PI Focus, Journal of the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers March 2011
  • Mediating Construction Disputes: An Evaluation of Current Practice Jackson R.P., Gale P, McKeown S.J., The Institution of Civil Engineers March 2011
  • The Value of Experts in Mediation  Jackson R.P., paper presented at the RICS Expert Witness Conference Manchester 20 October 2011
  • Getting the Best out of Experts in Mediation  Jackson R.P., paper presented at the Standing Conference of Mediation Advocates (SCMA) London8 November 2011
  • Technical Dispute Resolution – The Benefits of Expert Determination Jackson R.P., Solicitors Journal (Expert Witness Supplement) June 2012
  • Legionnaires’ Disease  – The Unseen Danger from Contaminated Water Jackson R.P., PI Focus, Journal of the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers July 2012
  • Who Dares Swims – The Risks to Swimming Pool Users and Poolside Staff Jackson R.P., PI Focus, Journal of the  Association of Personal Injury Lawyers July 2013
  • SCMA Manchester Seminar: Towards Evaluative Mediation –  Kallipetis M. QC., Goodman A., Jackson R.P., Mattison M., In association with the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators, the Association of Northern Mediators, & Eversheds LLP, 24 October 201
  • Frack to the Future – The future health, safety and environmental risks associated with hydraulic fracturing. Jackson R.P., PI Focus, Journal of the Association of Personal Injury Lawyers (publication pending)

UK Organisations Trained:

Water Companies

  • Anglian Water Services
  • SevernTrent Services
  • Southern Water Services
  • State of Guernsey
  • United Utilities

Local Authorities

  • Ashford Borough Council
  • Fenland District Council
  • Nottingham City Council

Consulting Engineers

  • Carl Bro Group
  • Faber Maunsell
  • Halcrow
  • Hyder Consulting
  • Jacobs Engineering
  • Mott MacDonald
  • Mouchel
  • Pell Frischmann
  • Pick Everard
  • Scott Wilson Water

Contractors

  • KMI Plus
  • May Gurney
  • Grontmij
  • Meica Process UK
  • Morrison Construction

 Overseas Organisations Trained:

  • Ministry of Development, Brunei Darussalam
  • Kuwait Petroleum Corporation

Water & Wastewater Management Training is available in Nigeria, Ghana and other parts of West of Africa.

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